"The Tonton Macoutes" by Bernard Diederich

Diederich is a journalist who once ran a newspaper in Haiti titled Haiti Sun. He has since published numerous books, Papa Doc: The Truth About Haiti Today (1969) and, most recently, Seeds of Fiction: Graham Greene’s Adventures in Haiti and Central America, 1954-1983 (2012).

Duvalierist civilian enforcers became known as Tontons Makouts shortly after François Duvalier took power in 1957. They were often illiterate with  Damon Runyon type names, corrupt and many were sociopaths ready to kill.

Clement Barbot and several other key Duvalierist chieftains such as Luckner Cambronne, (Pastor) Luc Desyr and (Baker) Elois Maitre had their gang of Makouts and rivalry was rife. They often fought for Papa Doc’s recognition and to prove their loyalty. Powerful Makouts such as Justin Bertrand in a fit of jealousy murdered Papa Doc’s own "Boy"( servant) and landed in Ft.Dimanche with a son where they rotted to death.

Papa Doc ordered a national funeral for his servant. When in 1958 Duvalier formed his uniformed militia (later titled Volunteers of National Security) they were also called Makouts. Papa Doc had the British ambassador thrown out and cut ties with Great Britain for his using the word "Makout!". Later Papa Doc told newsmen that "Makouts" were just like Homeguard of World War II. In post Duvalier it later became a generic term for aggressive, abusive and entitled individuals.